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Expert Essays
Read more about convicts and penal colony sites.
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View more maps that show the flows and sources of some different areas of the carceral archipelago.
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Get a closer look at the statistics for some of the colonies and transportation circuits.

Expert Essays // View All

Between 1787 and 1857, the East India Company (EIC) instituted radical changes in punishment, across the presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras

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Convict transportation was an extensive system which many European countries and their colonies used as a form of punishment for criminals.

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The history of the penal colony (bagne) of New Caledonia is interwoven with that of another, more infamous French penal colony: French Guiana.

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1881年から1908年まで、ボアソナード起草による刑法の下、北海道は日本で唯一の流刑植民地であった。近代日本における地政学的な位置づけから、北海道はしばしば「内国植民地」と呼ばれてきた。この用語は字義通りにはinternal colonyと訳される。しかしながら、その概念はポストコロニアル的課題としてのinternal colonyとは異なる。

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In China exile was almost always internal and involved removal within the frontiers of the state, not beyond. This essay focuses on Qing China (1644-1912).

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