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In France in the nineteenth century, being sent to the colonies was considered a form of punishment. People were sent there following various measures.
While much has been written about French navigation and colonial settlement in America, few authors have dwelt on the carceral dimensions underlying these attempts. This is the case, among others, for the third and last expedition of Jacques Cartier and of J-F de La Rocque de Roberval from 1541 to 1543, which included a large […]
Napoléon III décida d’organiser la peine des travaux forcés aux colonies, précisément en Guyane.
Between 1787 and 1868 over 160,000 convict men, women and children were transported to Australia. The largest forced exile of citizens in modern history.