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View more maps that show the flows and sources of some different areas of the carceral archipelago.
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Get a closer look at the statistics for some of the colonies and transportation circuits.

Expert Essays // View All

Penal transportation to and within Latin America in the late colonial period mainly consisted of exile and deportation to military outposts (presidios).

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Napoléon III décida d’organiser la peine des travaux forcés aux colonies, précisément en Guyane.

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The history of the penal colony (bagne) of New Caledonia is interwoven with that of another, more infamous French penal colony: French Guiana.

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In France in the nineteenth century, being sent to the colonies was considered a form of punishment. People were sent there following various measures.

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Between 1787 and 1857, the East India Company (EIC) instituted radical changes in punishment, across the presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras

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