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Convict transportation was an extensive system which many European countries and their colonies used as a form of punishment for criminals.
Napoléon III décida d’organiser la peine des travaux forcés aux colonies, précisément en Guyane.
In 1823, an Act of Parliament authorized the sending of convicts to any colony designated by the King. This opened up Bermuda as a destination for convicts.
Between 1787 and 1857, the East India Company (EIC) instituted radical changes in punishment, across the presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras