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Expert Essays
Read more about convicts and penal colony sites.
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Maps
View more maps that show the flows and sources of some different areas of the carceral archipelago.
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Statistics
Get a closer look at the statistics for some of the colonies and transportation circuits.

Expert Essays // View All

1881-1908, under the penal code by French jurist Boissonade, Hokkaido was Japan’s only penal colony. Often called Naikoku shokuminchi, “internal colony.”

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The 30,000 square-mile, sturgeon-shaped island located directly north of Japan, served as a maximum-security tsarist prison between 1868 and 1905.

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Between 1787 and 1857, the East India Company (EIC) instituted radical changes in punishment, across the presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras

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Napoleon III decided to establish the sentence of hard labour not within France, but in the colonies, specifically, in French Guyana.

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The utility of overseas developments to the mother country as a depository for deviants and the poor was a factor in policy and propaganda.

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