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1881-1908, under the penal code by French jurist Boissonade, Hokkaido was Japan’s only penal colony. Often called Naikoku shokuminchi, “internal colony.”
The 30,000 square-mile, sturgeon-shaped island located directly north of Japan, served as a maximum-security tsarist prison between 1868 and 1905.
Between 1787 and 1857, the East India Company (EIC) instituted radical changes in punishment, across the presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras
Napoleon III decided to establish the sentence of hard labour not within France, but in the colonies, specifically, in French Guyana.