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View more maps that show the flows and sources of some different areas of the carceral archipelago.
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Get a closer look at the statistics for some of the colonies and transportation circuits.

Expert Essays // View All

From 1593 and ending in 1988 Russian heads of state used forced exile (ssylka) and hard labor (katorga) as the preferred methods for punishing criminals.

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The utility of overseas developments to the mother country as a depository for deviants and the poor was a factor in policy and propaganda.

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The Portuguese use of convicts extended from the origins of the country’s founding in the High Middle Ages (ca. 1150) to 1932 or roughly 800 years.

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The Transportation of Indigenous Australian Convicts to Rottnest Island Prison, 1839-1903. The first shipment of prisoners landed in August 1838.

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In China exile was almost always internal and involved removal within the frontiers of the state, not beyond. This essay focuses on Qing China (1644-1912).

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