Expert Essays // View All
From 1593 and ending in 1988 Russian heads of state used forced exile (ssylka) and hard labor (katorga) as the preferred methods for punishing criminals.
The utility of overseas developments to the mother country as a depository for deviants and the poor was a factor in policy and propaganda.
The Portuguese use of convicts extended from the origins of the country’s founding in the High Middle Ages (ca. 1150) to 1932 or roughly 800 years.
The Transportation of Indigenous Australian Convicts to Rottnest Island Prison, 1839-1903. The first shipment of prisoners landed in August 1838.