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Penal transportation to and within Latin America in the late colonial period mainly consisted of exile and deportation to military outposts (presidios).
Napoléon III décida d’organiser la peine des travaux forcés aux colonies, précisément en Guyane.
The history of the penal colony (bagne) of New Caledonia is interwoven with that of another, more infamous French penal colony: French Guiana.
In France in the nineteenth century, being sent to the colonies was considered a form of punishment. People were sent there following various measures.