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Expert Essays
Read more about convicts and penal colony sites.
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Maps
View more maps that show the flows and sources of some different areas of the carceral archipelago.
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Statistics
Get a closer look at the statistics for some of the colonies and transportation circuits.

Expert Essays // View All

The largest island in Sydney harbour, where the Parramatta River meets the Tasman Sea. Called Waramah in the language of the Eora.

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Penal transportation to and within Latin America in the late colonial period mainly consisted of exile and deportation to military outposts (presidios).

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Penal transportation in the late eighteenth-century Spanish empire had two important peculiarities that differentiated it from other empires.

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In 1823, an Act of Parliament authorized the sending of convicts to any colony designated by the King. This opened up Bermuda as a destination for convicts.

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1881-1908, under the penal code by French jurist Boissonade, Hokkaido was Japan’s only penal colony. Often called Naikoku shokuminchi, “internal colony.”

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