Aleksandrovskaya hard labour prison

George Kennan wrote about his visit to this katorga in "Siberia and the Exile System" (1891).

Expert Essay

Russia

From 1593 and ending in 1988 Russian heads of state used forced exile (ssylka) and hard labor (katorga) as the preferred methods for punishing criminals.

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Timeline

Flow numbers:Exile transportation(both men and women) through Main Exile Path to Eastern, Western Siberia and the Far East(flow), including voluntary following members of exile families.

Standing Numbers: number of transported exiles, residing in Siberia, as of 1st January of given year.