Russian Empire

Notes (flows):

Exile transportation(both men and women) through Main Exile Path to Eastern, Western Siberia and the Far East(flow), including voluntary following members of exile families.

Data is taken from the published archive records of Ssylniy prikaz (main government agency, regulating transportation and exile), Tyumenskiy prison (entire convict flow from European Russia to Siberia was going through it) and several other sources.

Information on the eighteenth-century Siberia convict-exile flows is sketchy. Continuous statistical rows (although fragmentary and sometimes contradictory) are available since early 1820s, after the establishment of Ssylniy prikaz in 1822 and the beginning of formal registration of exiles on a more or less unified basis.

Much more reliable data is available from 1882 due to fundamental prison reform of 1879, creation of Main Prison Administration of Imperial Ministry of Internal Affairs. Extremely detailed and reliable statistics is available from 1887 and further on.

For seventeen years from 1882 to 1898, Siberia and Far East had received 148,032 exiles proper (without hard-labor convicts), or approximately 8,700 exiles a year. Of the total number – 115 927 men, or 82.5%, arrived in Siberia alone, without their families. More than half of exiles  were so called  “administrative” (exiled without formal trial) – 77 158 people ( 52.12%), then followed exile-settlers (46 002),  exiled as tramps (21,652)  and exiled for life (3095 men and 125 women).

 

Sources:

1807-1881: Ssylka v Sibir, ocherk ee istorii i sovremennogo polozhenia. Dlya Visochayshe utverzhdennoy komissii o meropriyatiyah po otmene ssylki. Spb.1900. Table I.

1882-1885: Otchet po Glavnomu Tyuremnomu Upravleniyu za 1885.Part I.Spb.1887.

1886-1888: Otchet … za 1888.Spb.1890.

1889-1890: Otchet … za 1891.Spb.1893.

1891-1892: Otchet … za 1892.Spb.1894. 1893-1896: Otchet … za 1896.Spb.1898.

1897: Ssylka v Sibir(1900).

1898-1899: Otchet … za 1899.Spb.1901.

1900: Otchet … za 1900.Spb.1902.

1901: Otchet … za 1901.Spb.1903.
Notes (Standing numbers): There are no relevant and reliable annual stock figures for entire exile population in Eastern and Western Siberia for 1800-1900 chronological period.  More or less reliable estimates exist only for 1824, 1833, 1835, 1851, end of 1870s [displayed in the graph as 1879], 1885, 1898. Estimates for 1870s, 1885 and especially 1898 are much more accurate, because of the overall improvement in registration.

 

 

Source: Ssylka v Sibir, ocherk ee istorii i sovremennogo polozhenia. Dlya Visochayshe utverzhdennoy komissii o meropriyatiyah po otmene ssylki. Spb.1900.

 

 

Researcher: Mikhail Nakonechny.