USSR – Soviet corrective-labor camps

Arrivals(flow) in the system of Soviet corrective-labor camps(ITLs) in 1934-1947 and in camps and colonies in 1949-1954:

Notes: Admissions include arrivals from other camps, from “places of detention”( corrective-labor colonies and prisons), re-captured prisoners. Data for 1934-1947 is given only for arrivals to ITLs(corrective-labor camps). Data for 1949-1954 includes admissions to both corrective-labor camps(ITLs) and corrective-labor colonies(ITK).


1934-1947: GA RF(State Archive of Russian Federation).F.R-9414.O.1.D.1155.L.2.

Published: Zemskov V.N. GULAG: istoriko-sociologicheskiy aspekt// Sociologicheskie issledovaniya.1991.№6.

1949-1954: GA RF.F.R-9414.O.1.D.1319.L.1-1ob., 4-4ob., 7-7 ob., 10-10 ob., 18-18 ob., 21-21 ob. Published: Istoria Stalinskogo GULAGa. Naselenie GULAGа: chislennost’ i usloviya soderzhniya.Vol.4.2004.

Standing numbers:

Notes: Data refer to numbers of prisoners on 1 January each year.


1930-1935: Wheatcroft S. G. The first 35 years of Soviet living standards: Secular growth and conjunctural crises in a time of famines // Explorations in Economic History. 2009. Vol. 46, No. 1.

1936-1960: GA RF.F.R-9414. O.1. D.330. L.55; D.1155. L.1-3, 9; D.1190. L.1-34; D.1390. L.1-21;D.1398.L. 1; D.1426. L.39; D.1427. L.132-133, 140-141, 177-178. Published: Zemskov V.N. Demographia zakluchennih, spezpereselenzev i ssylnih(30-50-e)//Mir Rossii.1999.T.VIII.№4.

Researcher: Mikhail Nakonechny